Tag Archives: consumption


Exclusion of animals from the human scope of justice

“Humans and animals share many similarities. Across three studies, the authors demonstrate that the framing of these similarities has significant consequences for people’s moral concern for others.” [1]

“Studies on dehumanization demonstrated that denying certain human characteristics might serve as a strategy for moral disengagement. Meat consumption-especially in the times of cruel animal farming-is related to the exclusion of animals from the human scope of justice.” [2]

“Most people love animals and love eating meat. One way of reducing this conflict is to deny that animals suffer and have moral rights. We suggest that the act of categorizing an animal as ‘food’ may diminish their perceived capacity to suffer, which in turn dampens our moral concern.” [3]

“Many people like eating meat, but most are reluctant to harm things that have minds. The current three studies show that this dissonance motivates people to deny minds to animals.” [4]

“Nonhuman animal farming, by its fundamental nature, involves a greater or lesser degree of ill
treatment and oppression. (…) Worldwide, approximately 55,000,000,000 land-based nonhumans are killed every year in the farming industry (United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, 2010).” [5]



[1] Bastian, B., Costello, K., Loughnan, S., Hodson, G. When Closing the Human-Animal Divide Expands Moral Concern: The Importance of Framing, (2012) Social Psychological and Personality Science 3 (4) , pp. 421-429.

[2] Bilewicz M., Imhoff R., Drogosz M. The humanity of what we eat: Conceptions of human uniqueness among vegetarians and omnivores, (2011) European Journal of Social Psychology, 41 (2) , pp. 201-209.

[3] Bratanova B., Loughnan S., Bastian B. The effect of categorization as food on the perceived moral standing of animals, (2011) Appetite, 57 (1) , pp. 193-196.

[4] Bastian B., Loughnan S., Haslam N., Radke H.R.M. Don’t mind meat? the denial of mind to animals used for human consumption, (2012) Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 38 (2) , pp. 247-256.

[5] Mitchell L. Moral disengagement and support for nonhuman animal farming, (2011) Society and Animals, 19 (1) , pp. 38-58.


Bone health linked with fruit and vegetable consumption

In 2000, in a paper cited by 235 papers on Scopus since its publication, New et al [1] reported:

“The BMD (Bone mineral density) results confirm our previous work (…), and our findings (…) provide further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health.”

Research can move fast. So what are the more recent reports on this topic?

In 2011, the authors of a study of over 3000 Scottish women [2], say:

“It is concluded that dietary flavonoid (found particularly in fruit and vegetables) intakes are associated with BMD, supporting the evidence from animal and cellular studies.”

In 2012, Shen et al [3] say:

“commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength.”



[1] New S.A., Robins S.P., Campbell M.K., Martin J.C., Garton M.J., Bolton-Smith C., Grubb D.A., (…), Reid D.M. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: Further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health (2000) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (1) , pp. 142-151.

[2] Hardcastle A.C., Aucott L., Reid D.M., MacDonald H.M. Associations between dietary flavonoid intakes and bone health in a scottish population (2011) Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26 (5) , pp. 941-947.

[3] Shen, C.-L., von Bergen, V., Chyu, M.-C., Jenkins, M.R., Mo, H., Chen, C.-H., Kwun, I.-S. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection. (2012) Nutrition Research 32 (12), pp. 897-910.