Bone health linked with fruit and vegetable consumption

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In 2000, in a paper cited by 235 papers on Scopus since its publication, New et al [1] reported:

“The BMD (Bone mineral density) results confirm our previous work (…), and our findings (…) provide further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health.”

Research can move fast. So what are the more recent reports on this topic?

In 2011, the authors of a study of over 3000 Scottish women [2], say:

“It is concluded that dietary flavonoid (found particularly in fruit and vegetables) intakes are associated with BMD, supporting the evidence from animal and cellular studies.”

In 2012, Shen et al [3] say:

“commonly consumed antioxidant-rich fruits have a pronounced effect on bone, as shown by higher bone mass, trabecular bone volume, number, and thickness, and lower trabecular separation through enhancing bone formation and suppressing bone resorption, resulting in greater bone strength.”

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References:

[1] New S.A., Robins S.P., Campbell M.K., Martin J.C., Garton M.J., Bolton-Smith C., Grubb D.A., (…), Reid D.M. Dietary influences on bone mass and bone metabolism: Further evidence of a positive link between fruit and vegetable consumption and bone health (2000) American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 71 (1) , pp. 142-151.

[2] Hardcastle A.C., Aucott L., Reid D.M., MacDonald H.M. Associations between dietary flavonoid intakes and bone health in a scottish population (2011) Journal of Bone and Mineral Research, 26 (5) , pp. 941-947.

[3] Shen, C.-L., von Bergen, V., Chyu, M.-C., Jenkins, M.R., Mo, H., Chen, C.-H., Kwun, I.-S. Fruits and dietary phytochemicals in bone protection. (2012) Nutrition Research 32 (12), pp. 897-910.